For future evaluations, we are currently checking the reference corpus, composed of several genres, by a second human annotator, in order to improve the qual- ity of the annotations. Now, we present the RefGen module architecture and we present the linguistic annotations re- quired tagging, chunking and Named Entities Recognition.
An example of synonyms is the words cat and feline. These informations are useful to detect the end of the reference chain or the beginning of a new one. Optimality theory reformulates the rules proposed by the Centering theory  in terms of constraints. RefGen algorithm uses genre specific properties of reference chains and an accessibility measure to find the mentions of the referred entity.
However, the use of a complete noun phrase instead of a pro- noun is an indication of a referent change. In this case, we use the non repetition of the article "le" as a proof to gather the two functions with the person name.
Example 8 illustrates such a cohesive tie of ellipsis. In addition, RefGen uses some genre-dependent properties of the reference chains average length, preferred type of the first element, average distance separating several mentions of the same referent.
These genre-dependent properties were identified from a corpus-based analysis. For example, the noun building should have translations, but the present participle of build will not.
The antecedent should there is a valid antecedent-anaphor pair: The search engine uses topic indexing to help users to retrieve relevant documents from the archives.
Thus, we established symbolic rules and some lists of common names to identify person names and organization names. Translations should be given in English entries, and also in Translingual entries for taxonomic names.
The paper is organized as follows. We tested the system for three various configurations of the genre parameters. The algorithm follows the next steps see Algorithm 1. The reference chain study is based on . Translations should be given in English entries, and also in Translingual entries for taxonomic names.
Although the definite and indefinite articles are generally used effectively in conversation, the special demands of writing may produce problems for KS3 pupils.
We evaluate the results obtained by RefGen from a public reports cor- pus and we discuss the importance of the genre-dependent parameters to improve the reference chains identification.
We tested the system for three various configurations of the genre parameters. Descendants List terms in other languages that have borrowed or inherited the word. Substitution Substitution as another type of cohesive relation, or cohesive tie, is the process in which one item within a text or discourse is replaced by another cf.
We find many direct coreference We present a full example processed by RefGen. There are three types of antonyms: He should get a nicer one. Strong constraints must be satisfied: The topic is in the subject position. To define the boundaries of a named entity "pers" and "org" and to categorize it, we used lists of internal and external evidences .Hyponyms: Pronoun and Reference Chain.
Topics: Pronoun, Pronoun Reference A pronoun must refer clearly to its antecedent.
Because a pronoun is a substitute word, it can express meaning clearly and definitely only if its antecedent is easily identified. When using a pronoun to refer to a general idea, make sure that the reference is clear. The pronouns used frequently in this way are this, that, which, and it.
The best solution may be to recast the sentence to omit the pronoun in question. 2 The Reference Chains Referential expressions Following , we consider a reference chain as a relation between at least three men- tions (three referential expressions). The reference chains include three types of con- stituents with a referential function: the proper nouns, the NPs (definite, indefinite, pos- sessive or demonstrative.
LABOR: One of the four basic categories of resources, or factors of production (the other three are capital, land, and entrepreneurship). Labor is the services and efforts of.
– Reference – Substitution – Ellipsis – Conjunction • Lexical - Cataphora example with pronoun (he) referring to following text.
(This is far less common.) • A lexical chain is a sequence of semantically related words from the text. pronoun: hymn: religious song: hoar: a white frost whore: a prostitute to edge with a chain of small loops: pearl: something of value made from an irritant Sets of homonyms: Homonyms: New words: References: Last updated: 2/15/ Go to All About Homonyms.Download