An analysis of the characteristics of chemical weapons and warfare

History consistently shows that generals always prepare to fight the last war and biological warfare is probably no exception.

List of chemical warfare agents

VX, the most infamous V-series agent, is the most lethal poison that enters the body through contact with the skin.

Humans are unique among the species in their capacity for fighting prolonged conflicts where the nature of the war reflects the types of technologies available.

Given the enormous universe of microbial threats, the power of modern biology to enhance the microbial virulence and the high likelihood that biological weapons will continue to threaten humanity one must face the question of how best to protect society.

Page 1 of 6. The best defense against blood agents is an effective gas mask. Symptoms begin hours after exposure. The first massive use of chemical weapons in that conflict came when the Germans released chlorine gas from thousands of cylinders along a 6-km 4-mile front at YpresBelgium, on April 22,creating a wind-borne chemical cloud that opened a major breach in the lines of the unprepared French and Algerian units.

U59 Chemical Chemical agents. This attack illustrates the one single characteristic of CW agents that allows them to be considered as WMD. Additionally, when soldiers are unable to avoid the anxious situation, they can become nervous, panicked, irrational and depersonalised, or experience changes in self-awareness and are likely to feel detached from themselves.

Effects may be local or throughout the body. Vapors can be affected by winds. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance. Although the gas masks with respirators protected the respiratory tract and eyes of the troops against chemical attacks, mustard gas was still able to burn and blister even through clothing.

The threat of using CW agents in domestic terrorist attack was demonstrated for the first time in these cases. His research interests include investigations of electromagnetic field theory, High-Power Electromagnetics, investigations of short pulse interaction on electronics, and impulse radiation.

Into Category 1 fall Schedule 1 chemical agents and munitions filled with Schedule 1 agents. Not all poisonous substances are considered suitable for weaponization, or use as chemical weapons.

CBRN Protection: Managing the Threat of Chemical, Biological, Radioactive and Nuclear Weapons

Detection technologies for chemical warfare agents and toxic vapors. Ideally, emergency personnel will wear personal protective equipmentdecontaminate the victims immediately, provide medical support to the victims and provide specific antidotes to counteract the harmful effects.

Malaysian authorities reported that he was poisoned with the nerve agent. His current research interests include investigations of non-thermal inactivation of biological and chemical agents as well as the control of the efficiency of a decontamination process.

Added to Your Shopping Cart Add to cart Description Originating in the armed forces of the early 20th century, weapons based on chemical, biological or nuclear agents have become an everpresent threat that has not vanished after the end of the cold war. Her research focuses on innovative technologies for the identification of microorganisms and her scientific interests include all aspects of real-time-PCR methods, array applications as well as innovative applications of nanotechnology.

The Geneva Protocol, which was signed inprohibits the use of chemical weapons, but these weapons have been used in wars since. Exposure to even a small amount of vapor usually results in at least one of the following categories of symptoms: Thousands of such chemical compounds exist, but only a few dozen have been used as chemical warfare agents since Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are also considered weapons themselves.

On the other hand, microbes normally avirulent for immunologically competent hosts such as Aspergillus spp. Levy and Victor W. Nerve agent vapors are heavier than air and tend to sink into low places for example, trenches or basements.

Although biological warfare is currently prohibited by the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention BTWC a review of prior attempts to limit the use of certain weapons such as the medieval crossbow, and more recently gas warfare, provides little encouragement for the notion that a technology that is useful in war can be limited by treaty.

As with the second part, the principle of specificity applies. Casualties were inflicted when personnel were attacked and exposed to blister agents like sulfur mustard or lewisite.

Blister fluid does not contain active mustard and is not toxic. To help facilitate the destruction and verification process, chemical weapons are formally divided into three Categories. In preparing for known and unknown threats the availability of a vigorous scientific research establishment that can respond rapidly is an essential component for any effort to defend society.

Although the risk of generating Frankenstein microbes accidentally from synthetic biology is quite low, it is not zero. Nerve agents such as sarin, soman, cyclohexylsarin, tabun, VX Vesicating or blistering agents such as mustards, lewisite Choking agents or lung toxicants such as chlorine, phosgene, diphosgene Cyanides Incapacitating agents such as anticholinergic compounds Lacrimating or riot control agents such as pepper gas, chloroacetophenone, CS Vomiting agents such as adamsite Physical properties:The Geneva Protocol prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons in warfare.

Some signing countries declared that they would not honor it if their enemies, or the allies of their enemies, did not adhere to its prohibitions. Chemical Weapons: A Summary Report of Characteristics and Effects Congressional Research Service 3 synthesis and specialized equipment to contain the nerve agents produced.7 Of the nerve agents, VX is the most difficult to manufacture.

Chemical weapons are defined as chemical substances of gas, liquid, or solid which are used because of a directly toxic effect upon humans, animals, or plants.4/4(1).

Chemical weapons, lethal poison that can be disseminated as gases, aerosols or liquids, are commonly included in the classification of weapons of. A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Detector Technologies and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Items Executive Summary The ability to rapidly detect, identify and monitor chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is.

A chemical weapon agent (CWA) is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human beings. About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. These agents may be in liquid, gas or solid form.

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An analysis of the characteristics of chemical weapons and warfare
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