The work was based on Breuer's treatment of Bertha Pappenheimreferred to in case studies by the pseudonym " Anna O. This is a difficult problem to trace because Freud destroyed most of his patient files.
The following represent some of the most prominent concerns: The patient was encouraged to say anything that came to mind, without regard to its assumed relevancy or propriety.
Levenson, Jay GreenbergEdward R. Leo Bellak was a later contributor. If he made notes at all it was typically hours after the interaction. Lacanian psychoanalysis is a departure from the traditional British and American psychoanalysis, which is predominantly Ego psychology. Dynamic the theory of conflict 3.
The theory was refined by HartmannLoewenstein, and Kris in a series of papers and books from through the late s. His early formulation included the idea that because of societal restrictions, sexual wishes were repressed into an unconscious state, and that the energy of these unconscious wishes could be turned into anxiety or physical symptoms.
Toilet Training At this stage, the child is very interested in his bodily functions and the libido is focused on the anus and the controlling of both the bladder and bowel. The therapist takes a very hands-off approach while the patient basically 'daydreams' out loud.
In part an extrapolation of the automatic writing promoted by the German Jewish writer Ludwig… Observing that most patients talked freely without being under hypnosis, Freud evolved the technique of free association of ideas.
Childhood origins[ edit ] Freudian theories hold that adult problems can be traced to unresolved conflicts from certain phases of childhood and adolescencecaused by fantasy, stemming from their own drives. Freud only published six case histories, and none are considered to be compelling evidence for the soundness of psychoanalysis.
Lachmann, Herbert Rosenfeld and Daniel Stern. The creative process is akin to dreaming awake: Freud believed that slips of the tongue provided an insight into the unconscious mind and that there were no accidents, every behavior including slips of the tongue was significant i.
These techniques are particularly applicable to psychotic and near-psychotic cf. Some studies have refuted this fact, showing that social experiences - rather than sexual factors or libido - are more influential in shaping personality. The case study method is criticized as it is doubtful that generalizations can be valid since the method is open to many kinds of bias e.
The ego, according to Freud, operates in conscious and preconscious levels of awareness. This is contrasted with the primacy of intrapsychic forces, as in classical psychoanalysis. There still is no complete agreement, although nowadays professionals recognize the negative effects of child sexual abuse on mental health.
Not only is it limited in gender and geographical location, but it is also influenced by a late nineteenth century society that was Victorian in manner, which manifested as sexually repressed.
Paul, Letters to Simon ; and explaining the motivations of others which the patient misperceives. Michael Delahoyde Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of "reading" employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts.
The process of treatment proceeds through "transmuting internalizations" in which the patient gradually internalizes the selfobject functions provided by the therapist. Since the Id is driven by the pleasure principle, it is concerned only with immediate gratification. Though there is a mainstream of evolved analytic ideasthere are groups who follow the precepts of one or more of the later theoreticians.
Modern conflict theory addresses emotional symptoms and character traits as complex solutions to mental conflict.Psychic determinism This principle holds that in all mental functioning nothing happens by chance.
Everything a person feels, thinks, fantasizes, dreams, and does has a psychological motive. “My Life is interesting only if it is related to psychoanalysis” Freud Sigmund Freud over time the therapy has been replaced by more modern theory. Oral Stage (Birth to 18 Months) (lots of criticism has come of them over time), much of Freud’s work remains central to some of our most fundamental understandings of psychology.
Psychoanalysis was the first formal theory of personality influenced by Sigmund Freud. Freud divided personality into three levels: the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious.
He later revised this notion and introduced the id, the ego and the superego. Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism or literary theory which, in method, concept, or form, is influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis begun by Sigmund Freud.
Psychoanalytic reading has been practiced since the early development of psychoanalysis itself, and has developed into a heterogeneous interpretive tradition. Another criticism of Freud concerns his training as a physician and his extensive reliance on a medical model to develop his theory of psychoanalysis.
His strong emphasis on pathology causes him to label behavior as "problematic" or "inappropriate" that most in contemporary times would classify as normative or common to the human condition.
Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism or literary theory which, in method, concept, or form, is influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis begun by Sigmund Freud.
Psychoanalytic reading has been practiced since the early development of psychoanalysis itself, and has developed into a heterogeneous interpretive tradition.Download